The paper, published in the European Journal of Nutrition, explores the association of both plasma vitamin D and K concentrations with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular events in the general population
In this prospective study, 4742 participants were enrolled and followed for 14 years (median). D and K status, respectively measured as 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP), were assessed through blood samples.
In the cohort of middle-aged individuals from the general population, combined low vitamin D and K status was present in 20% and was associated with a greater risk of all-cause mortality compared with normal vitamin D and K status.
“To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the association of combined vitamin D and K status with mortality outcomes in the general population,” says Trygve Bergeland, VP Science & Product Development at Kappa Bioscience.
“Interestingly, this research shows that the association of combined low vitamin D and K status with mortality was greater than one vitamin insufficiency alone, and amplified the risks.”
"Combined low vitamin D and K status are associated with increased all-cause mortality risk and possibly with cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular events compared with adequate vitamin D and K status," the study claims.
"Proper nutrition is undeniably recognised as a crucial factor for good health. Vitamin D supplementation is common and certainly benefits bone health, with positive effects demonstrated on bone density and fracture prevention."
"Yet, D needs to be balanced with K for proper cardiovascular health. Alone, it can increase calcium uptakes in the intestines but not activate MGP, which is responsible for inhibiting calcification in the vascular system," Dr Bergeland explains.
"In fact, important effects of vitamin D for bone and cardiovascular health are indirect: D stimulates the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent proteins, osteocalcin and MGP. These proteins require sufficient amounts of vitamin K to be active."
"With both vitamins commonly lacking in our diets, co-supplementation is advised," he continues. Dr Bergeland adds: "As the majority of vitamin K1 is transported to the liver and used for activation of the coagulation machinery, it does not play a major role in activating the K-dependent proteins outside the liver, like osteocalcin and MGP."
"K2 MK-7 is highly bioavailable and has the longest half-life among all K vitamins. It is the best form for supplementation.”
With time, Kappa Bioscience has developed a great variety of educational materials insisting on the importance of D3 and K2 MK-7 for health. The company already expanded its ExperienceCards programme with formulations containing the Perfect Pair – vitamins D3 and K2 MK-7 – in a wide range of formats, from the traditional capsules to drops or gummies to meet consumer preferences.